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Metadata4Ing: An ontology for describing the generation of research data within a scientific activity.

Release 2022-02-22

This version:
https://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/1.0.0/
Latest version:
https://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/1.0.0/
Revision:
v1.0.0
Authors:
Metadata4Ing Workgroup
Contributors:
Ashish Karmacharya, (Technische Universität Darmstadt)
Benjamin Farnbacher, (Technische Universität München (TUM))
Cord Wiljes, (Universität Bielefeld)
Dorothea Iglezakis, (Universität Stuttgart)
Džulia Terzijska, (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT))
Giacomo Lanza, (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB))
Johanna Hickmann, (Technische Universität Berlin)
Johannes Theissen-Lipp, (RWTH Aachen University)
Johannes Munke, (Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ))
Jürgen Windeck, (Technische Universität Darmstadt)
Marc Fuhrmans, (Technische Universität Darmstadt)
Martin Thomas Horsch, (UK Research and Innovation (UKRI))
Nils Hoppe, (Technische Universität München (TUM))
Sophia Leimer, (Universität Duisburg-Essen)
Stephan Hachinger, (Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ))
Susanne Arndt, (Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB))
Publisher:
National Research Data Infrastructure for Engineering Sciences
Imported Ontologies:
bibo
biro
dcat
dcterms
foaf
owl
prov
qudt
rdf
rdfs
schema
skos
ssn
vann
xsd
Extended Ontologies:
emmo
obo
pims-ii
si
Download serialization:
JSON-LD RDF/XML N-Triples TTL
License:
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Visualization:
Visualize with WebVowl
Evaluation:
Evaluate with OOPS!
Cite as:
Metadata4Ing Workgroup (2022). Metadata4Ing: An ontology for describing the generation of research data within a scientific activity.
Provenance of this page
active

Abstract

The ontology Metadata4Ing is developed within the NFDI Consortium NFDI4Ing with the aim of providing a thorough framework for the semantic description of research data, with a particular focus on engineering sciences and neighbouring disciplines. This ontology allows a description of the whole data generation process (experiment, observation, simulation), embracing the object of investigation, all sample and data manipulation procedures, a summary of the data files and the information contained, and all personal and institutional roles. The subordinate classes and relations can be built according to the two principles of _inheritance_ and _modularity_. "Inheritance" means that a subclass inherits all properties of its superordinate class, possibly adding some new ones. Modularity means that all expansions are independent of each other; this makes possible for instance to generate expanded ontologies for any possible combinations of method × object of research.

Introduction back to ToC

The ontology Metadata4Ing is developed within the homonymous workgroup of the NFDI Consortium NFDI4Ing with the aim of providing a thorough framework for the semantic description of a generic process for the generation of scientific data (let it be an experiment, an observation, or a simulation), with a particular focus on engineering sciences and neighbouring disciplines. The structure and application of the ontology are based on the principles of modularity and inheritance. Metadata4Ing defines classes and properties or reuses such classes and properties from other ontologies to describe research processes and research data management in NFDI4Ing. New concepts and properties are located in the namespace of Metadata4Ing. Metadata4Ing does not import complete ontologies for the sake of relevance, readability, understandability and usability by and for engineers. Instead, it tries to make reuse of existing identifiers for classes and properties by reusing all or a relevant subset of the axioms from the original ontology. In some cases there was a need to extend or modify the original set of statements about an entity, e.g. because labels and definitions were expressed with a different owl:AnnotationProperty than the rest of Metadata4Ing, or because a skos:preflabel or a skos:definition in any of the languages we would like to support was missing. Any editorial changes on elements from external ontologies are declared in Metadata4Ing by an annotation with skos:editorialNote at item-level. To get the original set of statements we encourage to visit the original namespace of the respective item. Metadata4Ing reuses elements from the following ontologies: * BIBO = Bibliographic Ontology * BIRO = Bibliographic Reference Ontology * DCAT = Data Catalog * DCTERMS = Dublin Core Terms * FOAF = Friend of a Friend * OWL = Web Ontology Language * PROV = Provenance Namespace * QUDT = Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types * RDF = Resource Description Framework * RDFS = RDF Schema * SCHEMA = schema.org * SKOS = Simple Knowledge Organization System * SSN = Semantic Sensor Network Ontology * VANN = Vocabulary for Annotating vocabulary descriptions * XSD = XML Schema Definition * EMMO = European Materials and Modelling Ontology * BFO = Basic Formal Ontology * RO = Relation Ontology * PIMS-II = PIMS Interoperability Infrastructure * D-SI = Digital System of Units

Metadata4Ing: Overview back to ToC

This ontology has the following classes and properties.

Classes

Object Properties

Data Properties

Named Individuals

Metadata4Ing: Description back to ToC

### 3.1. General process model One of the main goals of the Metadata4Ing ontology is to enable researchers to document the provenance of data and material objects created or modified during research processes. Metadata4Ing accomplishes this with the help of a generalized process model centered around the class [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep). The aforementioned data and material objects are described as output of the [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep). Other relevant information like, e.g., the methods or tools used in a research process, are described in separate classes that can be linked to [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep). A series of [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep)s can be used to represent complex research processes (cf. [Section "Specifying complex setups and processes by using composition"](#38-specifying-complex-setups-and-processes-by-using-composition)). Metadata4Ing can therefore be seen as a system of building blocks that can be referred to by [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) and in their totality enable a complete description of the provenance of a dataset or material object. ![Overview of the central classes and their connections](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Metadata4IngBaseClassesAll.png) ### 3.2. Processing step as central element The central class of Metadata4Ing is [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) that can be used to describe all kinds of processes and does not distinguish between different types of processing steps. The pattern formed by [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) and its admissible object properties is therefore considered universal for all kinds of processes. A distinction between processes is achieved by adding further information as described in the following subsections. ### 3.3. Specifying in- and output One of the major roles of [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) is to connect data and material objects to the processing step they were created in or modified by. It is usually good practice to treat modified datasets and material objects as newly created instances of their respective classes instead of reusing the original instance with altered attributes. This may seem unintuitive especially for material objects that continue to exist after modification. But it is a necessity to be able to unambiguously refer to each "state" of modified entities. Each state may have been the subject of investigation or the in- or output in previous processing steps and therefore needs to persist as an unaltered node in the knowledge graph. For processing steps representing modifications of entities, the state before the modification would therefore be specified via [_has input_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233), whereas the resulting modified state of entity would be modelled as a new instance that is specified via [_has output_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002234). [_Has input_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233) can also be used to indicate other things that acted as input in a processing step, e.g. chemical substances or datasets (cf. [Section "Specifying datasets"](#310-specifying-datasets-a)). Both [_has input_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233) and [_has output_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002234) can refer to all kinds of entites, regardless of whether they are material (e.g. physical objects) or immaterial (e.g. datasets). Note, however, that [_has input_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233) should not be used for specifying tools used in a processing step or the investigated object (e.g. for a measurement), both of which can be indicated with more specific properties described in the next subsections (cf. [_has employed tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool) and [_investigates_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates)). ### 3.4. Specifying the investigated object and property Many processes (e.g. measurements or simulations) performed during research aim to investigate an object. In Metadata4Ing, this object of investigation can be specified with the [_investigates_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates) property, by which an arbitrary entity (both material and immaterial) can be connected to a [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep). In addition to the object itself, a specific property that is investigated (e.g. temperature, pressure) can be specified via [_investigates property_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigatesProperty). ### 3.5. Specifying employed tools and methods Another essential element for documenting a process is information on what has been done. For this, Metadata4Ing includes the classes [_method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method) and [_tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool). [_Method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method) describes the method that has been realized in the processing step (e.g. heating, numerical simulation) along with relevant parameters and can be added to the [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) via the [_realizes method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#realizesMethod) property. In a similar fashion, [_tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool) is used to describe a tool used to perform the processing step (e.g. water bath, simulation software) and can be linked to the [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) via the [_has employed tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool) property. In addition, Metadata4Ing includes the [_implements_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implements) property that can be used to indicate that a specific [_tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool) implements a certain [_method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method), as well as the inverse relation [_implemented by_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implementedBy). It is recommended that at least two sides of the information triangle formed by [_realizes method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#realizesMethod), [_has employed tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool) and [_implements_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implements) are included when documenting a processing step. Depending on the granularity of the processing step described, multiple methods and tools may be added to a single processing step (cf. [Section "Specifying complex setups and processes by using composition"](#38-specifying-complex-setups-and-processes-by-using-composition)). ### 3.6. Specifying parameters For both [_method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method) and [_tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool), relevant parameters (e.g. duration for the method "heating" or temperature for the tool "water bath") can be specified with the [_has parameter_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasParameter) property as a [_variable_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable). For further information on the description of variables, cf. [Section Representation of variables](variables). ### 3.7. Specifying persons and projects Any [_person_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/Person) can most prominently be identified via an [_ORCiD Id_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#orcidId) but also via characteristics like [_first name_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/firstName), [_last name_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/lastName), [_personal mailbox_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/mbox), or [_title_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/title). A [_person_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/Person) typically is affiliated with [_affiliation_](#https://schema.org/affiliation) to an [_organization_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/Organization), which in turn can be identified via a ROR ID (use property [_has research organization registry id_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasRorId)). An [_organization_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/Organization) may conduct [_research projects_](#https://schema.org/ResearchProject). These projects may be [_funded by_](#https://schema.org/funder) other [_organizations_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/Organization). A [_research project_](#https://schema.org/ResearchProject) is usually limited in time and has a specific [_start date_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#startOfProject) and [_end date_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#endOfProject). It usually has a unique [_project reference ID_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#projectReferenceID), especially when it is funded by third parties like the _Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft_ (DFG). A project usually has several [_project participants_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#projectParticipant) which are [_organizations_](#http://xmlns.com/foaf/Organization). A [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) may be part of such a [_research project_](#https://schema.org/ResearchProject). In any particular [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) several agents (e.g. people, organizations, software agents) can be involved [_taking on a particular role_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole) in the processing step, e.g. [_data collector_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#DataCollector). The overall connection between these classes can be summarized as shown in the next figure. ![Participation in processing steps](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Participation.png) ### 3.8. Specifying complex setups and processes by using composition Oftentimes, a process performed during research consists of several substeps performed in sequence or parallel, or a tool consists of multiple components (e.g. a hardware assembly). In Metadata4Ing, these situations can be described via composition. A complex processing step and its substeps can both be modelled as instances of [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep), and the substeps can be declared as such by giving them the [_part of_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050) property pointing to the instance of the complex processing step. With the properties [_starts with_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002224), [_ends with_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002230) and [_precedes_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000063) an ordering of steps is possible. In a similar fashion, [_part of_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050) can be used to combine components into a multi-component tool, all of which can be modelled as instances of [_tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool). ![Using isStepInAction to describe substeps of a processing step](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Metadata4IngProcessDecomposition.png) Since each substep in the composed step can be given all attributes of a [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) (including [_investigates_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates), [_has employed tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool), [_has input_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233) and [_has output_](#http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002234)), it becomes possible to provide a detailled description, including relations between the in- and output of specific components and substeps of a complex setup. ![Using composition to describe complex setups and processes](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Complex_Setup.png) ### 3.9. Specifying parameters by variables A building element in all quantitative sciences is the concept of [_variable_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable). A [_variable_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable) can be assigned a value (numerical, literal or logical) and can be attributed to a research object (as an intrinsic property), to a process (as technical parameter, independent regulated variable or result) or to the content of a dataset. Thus, a variable is the result of evalutating an expression, in both the mathematical and computer-science meaning of the word. A [_method_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method) or a [_tool_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool) can refer to a variable as its [_parameter_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasParameter); a [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) can [_investigate_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates) it. Special attention is devoted to numerical variables. A [_variable_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable) arising in the context of a research activity is an instance of a more generally defined [_kind of quantity_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#KindOfQuantity), which is usually normed within well-established vocabularies (ISO 80000, IEC, QUDT, EMMO); the recommended way to express the [_kind of quantity_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#KindOfQuantity) is via a persistent URI to the corresponding vocabulary entry. A [_kind of quantity_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#KindOfQuantity) and consequently a [_variable_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable) can be associated to a limited set of admissible [_measurement units_](#http://emmo.info/emmo#EMMO_b081b346_7279_46ef_9a3d_2c088fcd79f). Within a research activity, a variable can receive a [_quantity value_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#QuantityValue) in the context of a [_numerical assignment_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#NumericalAssignment), which includes a time stamp and the creation date. This [_quantity value_](#http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#QuantityValue) by itself is a multi-component object which contains all information for the rigorous description of a numerical value. This is presently implemented by an object of the form [_Real_](#https://ptb.de/si/Real), which includes the core metrological information describing a scalar quantity value: a numerical value, a [_measurement unit_](#http://emmo.info/emmo#EMMO_b081b346_7279_46ef_9a3d_2c088fcd79f4) and an [_uncertainty declaration_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#UncertaintyDeclaration), in the form of either a [_coverage interval_](#https://ptb.de/si/CoverageInterval) or an [_expanded uncertainty_](#https://ptb.de/si/ExpandedUnc) containing the uncertainty value, a [_coverage factor_](#https://ptb.de/si/hasCoverageFactor), the [_coverage probability_](#https://ptb.de/si/hasCoverageProbability) and optionally the underlying [_probability density distribution_](#https://ptb.de/si/hasDistribution). ![Darstellung numerischer Variablen](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Metadata4IngVariableAssignment.png) ### 3.10. Specifying datasets One possible output or input of a [_processing step_](#http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep) is a [_Dataset_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset) that represents a set of data. We use the concepts of DCAT (v2 and v3) to describe datasets. A [_Dataset_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset) can be serialized in one or several [_Distribution_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Distribution)s. A distribution stands for a digital file that is available under a [_download URL_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#downloadURL) and can be characterized by [_byte size_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#byteSize). A [_Dataset_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset) can also be part of a [_DatasetSeries_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#DatasetSeries). ![Datasets and their relations](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Dataset.png) ### 3.11. Specifying related publications The data acquired during research activities may become part of an analysis and a concluding interpretation. Traditionally, these activities are summed up in monographs or journal articles. Scientific publications and their metadata are fortunately online and persistently identified these days, their metadata provided as a [_bibliographic record_](#http://purl.org/spar/biro/BibliographicRecord). To connect a [_Dataset_](#http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset) to a related publication, it [_references_](http://purl.org/dc/terms/references) a [_bibliographic record_](#http://purl.org/spar/biro/BibliographicRecord) or [_is referenced by_](http://purl.org/dc/terms/isReferencedBy) one. ![Publication](https://git.rwth-aachen.de/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing/metadata4ing/-/raw/master/visualizations/Publication.png)

Cross reference for Metadata4Ing classes, properties and dataproperties back to ToC

This section provides details for each class and property defined by Metadata4Ing.

Classes

Activityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity

An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities.
has super-classes
process c
has sub-classes
processing step c
is in domain of
qualified association op, uses instrument op

Agentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent

An agent (eg. person, group, software or physical artifact).
has sub-classes
Group c, Organization c, Person c
is in domain of
personal mailbox op
is in range of
agent op, member op

Assignmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Assignment

Assignment, i.e., a data item by which a value is assigned to a variable with respect to a particular referent (e.g., T = 200 K for substance o as it was measured in a particular cognitive step); therein, T is the variable, related to the assignment by [inverseOf isVariableInAssignment], 200 K is the value, related to the assignment by [inverseOf isValueInAssignment], and o is the referent, related to the assignment by isAssignmentFor
has super-classes
Intangible c
has sub-classes
numerical assignment c
is in domain of
has assignment timestamp dp, has date assignment created dp, has date assignment deleted dp, has date assignment modified dp, has date assignment valid from dp, has date assignment valid until dp, is assignment for op
is in range of
has runtime assignment op, is value in assignment op, is variable in assignment op

Associationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association

An instance of prov:Association provides additional descriptions about the binary prov:wasAssociatedWith relation from an prov:Activity to some prov:Agent that had some responsiblity for it. For example, :baking prov:wasAssociatedWith :baker; prov:qualifiedssociation [ a prov:Association; prov:agent :baker; :foo :bar ].
is in domain of
hadRole op
is in range of
qualified association op

bibliographic recordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/biro/BibliographicRecord

A record that uniquely describes a particular textual or data publication (or a work in preparation for publication). Each bibliographic record is a set of entities describing aspects of the referenced work, including, for example, but not restricted to: authors, title, journal, publication year, DOI, ISSN, publisher and copyright information, or, in the case of a data publication: creators, title, version, archive, publication year, DOI or other identifier). The FRBR expression of a bibliographic record is a bibliographic reference, which usually contains only a sub-set of these entities, ordered in a particular way that corresponds to the house style of the publication in which it occurs.

coverage intervalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/CoverageInterval

Structure for stating a probabilistic-symmetric coverage interval for a real uncertainty, to be applied to an si:Real quantity value
has super-classes
uncertainty declaration c
is in domain of
has interval maximum dp, has interval minimum dp, has standard uncertainty dp
is in range of
has coverage interval op

datasetc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset

A collection of data, published or curated by a single source, and available for access or download in one or more representations.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has sub-classes
dataset series c
is in domain of
has distribution op, in series op

dataset seriesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#DatasetSeries

A collection of datasets that are published separately, but share some common characteristics that groups them.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has super-classes
dataset c
is in range of
in series op

distributionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Distribution

A specific representation of a dataset. A dataset might be available in multiple serializations that may differ in various ways, including natural language, media-type or format, schematic organization, temporal and spatial resolution, level of detail or profiles (which might specify any or all of the above).
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
is in domain of
compression format op, download URL op, file size (in bytes) dp, media type op, packaging format op

expanded uncertaintyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/ExpandedUnc

Structure for stating an expanded measurement, model, or simulation uncertainty, e.g., to be applied to an si:Real quantity value
has super-classes
uncertainty declaration c
is in domain of
has coverage factor dp, has uncertainty dp
is in range of
has expanded uncertainty op

Groupc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Group

A class of Agents.
has super-classes
Agent c
is in domain of
member op

Intangiblec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/Intangible

A utility class that serves as the umbrella for a number of 'intangible' things such as quantities, structured values, etc.
has sub-classes
Assignment c, Value c, Variable c, kind of quantity c, measurement unit c, uncertainty declaration c

kind of quantityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#KindOfQuantity

Kind of quantity, i.e., a physical/chemical quantity from a controlled vocabulary, such as QUDT, IEC, or EMMO
has super-classes
Intangible c
is in range of
has kind of quantity op

measurement unitc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://emmo.info/emmo#EMMO_b081b346_7279_46ef_9a3d_2c088fcd79f4

MeasurementUnit, i.e., a Mathematical ReferenceUnit that stands for the standard reference magnitude of a specific class of measurement processes, defined and adopted by convention or by law
has super-classes
Intangible c
is in domain of
is admissible unit for op
is in range of
has unit op, hasAdmissibleUnit op

methodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method

Abstract description of a method for analysis, generation and transformation of data and material objects like, e.g., 'Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy' or 'Molecular Dynamics Simulation'. Note that while values for relevant parameters should be provided, m4i:Method does not refer to the actual execution of the process that is described (use m4i:ProcessingStep for that), but rather a description of the underlying principle.
has super-classes
realizable entity c
is in domain of
implemented by op
is in range of
implements op, realizes method op

numerical assignmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#NumericalAssignment

Assignment by which a variable (e.g., a physical property) is assigned an si:Real quantity value (scalar x measurement unit) in some context (e.g., applied to some object of research)
has super-classes
Assignment c

Organizationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization

An organization.
has super-classes
Agent c
is in domain of
has ROR id dp
is disjoint with
Person c

Personc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person

A person.
has super-classes
Agent c
is in domain of
ORCID Id dp, firstName dp, lastName dp, title dp
is disjoint with
Organization c

processc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000015

Process, i.e., a physical entity with a temporal evolution that 'has a meaning for the ontologist'
has sub-classes
Activity c
is in domain of
immediately precedes op, precedes op, realizes op
is in range of
immediately precedes op, precedes op, realized in op

processing stepc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep

Specific action undertaken during research
has super-classes
Activity c
is in domain of
endTime dp, ends with op, has employed tool op, has runtime assignment op, investigates op, realizes method op, startTime dp, starts with op, usage instruction dp
is in range of
ends with op, starts with op

Projectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/Project

An enterprise (potentially individual but typically collaborative), planned to achieve a particular aim
has sub-classes
research project c
is in domain of
project ID dp, project end date dp, project participant op, project start date dp
is in range of
associated to project op

Propertyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Property

Property, i.e., a variable that can be considered (as an investigated property, i.e., target property) within a processing step
has super-classes
Variable c
is in range of
investigates property op

Quantity valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#QuantityValue

Quantity value, i.e., a value that has a numerical magnitude and a physical unit
has super-classes
Value c
has sub-classes
Real c

Realc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/Real

(Real value +- uncertainty) x measurement unit, i.e., a scalar value with a measurement unit and an uncertainty indication
has super-classes
Quantity value c
is in domain of
has coverage interval op, has expanded uncertainty op, has numerical value dp, has uncertainty declaration op, has unit op

realizable entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000017

To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
has sub-classes
method c
is in domain of
realized in op
is in range of
realizes op

research projectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/ResearchProject

A research project
has super-classes
Project c

Rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role

A role is the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity, in the context of a usage, generation, invalidation, association, start, and end.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#
has members
contact person ni, data collector ni, data curator ni, data manager ni, distributor ni, editor ni, hosting institution ni, other person ni, producer ni, project leader ni, project manager ni, project member ni, registration agency ni, registration authority ni, related person ni, research group ni, researcher ni, rights holder ni, sponsor ni, supervisor ni, work package leader ni

Toolc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool

Object that helps an agent perform an action (e.g., John wrote a book with a pen), i.e., an object of the relation schema:instrument or m4i:hasTool
is in domain of
implements op
is in range of
has employed tool op, implemented by op

uncertainty declarationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#UncertaintyDeclaration

Declaration that can be applied to an si:Real quantity value to give an assessment of uncertainty
has super-classes
Intangible c
has sub-classes
coverage interval c, expanded uncertainty c
is in domain of
has coverage probability dp, has distribution dp
is in range of
has uncertainty declaration op

Valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Value

Value, i.e., an articulation that is by social convention understood to be potentially assignable to a variable
has super-classes
Intangible c
has sub-classes
Quantity value c
is in domain of
is admissible value for op, is value in assignment op
is in range of
hasAdmissibleValue op

Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable

Variable, i.e., a conventional that is employed for something to which values can be assigned (this may include different notations for the same variable including, e.g., computational representations); this is to be understood very generally, e.g., a variable may be an array or set of elements or have another kind of internal structure
is equivalent to
inverse is admissible value for op some Value c
has super-classes
Intangible c
has sub-classes
Property c
is in domain of
has kind of quantity op, has symbol dp, has variable description dp, hasAdmissibleUnit op, hasAdmissibleValue op, is variable in assignment op
is in range of
has parameter op, is admissible unit for op, is admissible value for op

Object Properties

agentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent

The prov:agent property is used to reference an agent that had a role in an activity.
has range
Agent c

associated to projectop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#inProject

A property that connects a person or an organization with a project.
has domain
Organization c or Person c
has range
Project c
is inverse of
project participant op

compression formatop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#compressFormat

The compression format of the distribution in which the data is contained in a compressed form, e.g. to reduce the size of the downloadable file.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has domain
distribution c

download URLop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#downloadURL

The URL of the downloadable file in a given format. E.g. CSV file or RDF file. The format is indicated by the distribution's dcterms:format and/or dcat:mediaType.
Is defined by
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
has domain
distribution c

ends withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002230

x ends with y if and only if x has part y and the time point at which x ends is equivalent to the time point at which y ends. Formally: α(y) > α(x) ∧ ω(y) = ω(x), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
has part op
has domain
processing step c
has range
processing step c

hadRoleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole

prov:hadRole references the Role (i.e. the function of an entity with respect to an activity)
has domain
Association c
is inverse of
wasRoleIn op

has coverage intervalop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasCoverageInterval

Associates an si:Real quantity value with an si:CoverageInterval
has super-properties
has uncertainty declaration op
has domain
Real c
has range
coverage interval c

has distributionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#distribution

An available distribution of the dataset.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has domain
dataset c

has employed toolop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool

Points to a tool that is used within a given processing step
has super-properties
uses instrument op
has domain
processing step c
has range
Tool c

has expanded uncertaintyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasExpandedUnc

Relates an si:Real to its expanded uncertainty
has super-properties
has uncertainty declaration op
has domain
Real c
has range
expanded uncertainty c

has inputop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233

(x has input y) means x takes specific input as y for further processes
has super-properties
has participant op
is inverse of
input of op

has kind of quantityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasKindOfQuantity

Points to the property characterization (i.e., to the kind of quantity) from a controlled vocabulary
has domain
Variable c
has range
kind of quantity c

has outputop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002234

(x has output y) means x provides specific output y for the result or further processes
has super-properties
has participant op
is inverse of
output of op

has parameterop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasParameter

Points to a parameter of a given method or tool.
has domain
method c or Tool c
has range
Variable c

has partop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000051

a core relation that holds between a whole and its part

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
ends with op, member op, starts with op
is inverse of
part of op

has participantop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000057

a relation between a process and a continuant, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process
has sub-properties
has input op, has output op, has runtime assignment op, uses instrument op
is inverse of
participates in op
has sub-property chains
qualified association op o agent op

has propertyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/hasProperty

Relation between an entity and a Property of that entity.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/
is inverse of
is property of op

has runtime assignmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasRuntimeAssignment

Points to an assignment that is neither input nor output
has super-properties
has participant op
has domain
processing step c
has range
Assignment c

has uncertainty declarationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasUncertaintyDeclaration

Associates an si:Real quantity value with its mandatory uncertainty declaration (i.e., with an expanded uncertainty or a coverage interval)
has sub-properties
has coverage interval op, has expanded uncertainty op
has domain
Real c
has range
uncertainty declaration c

has unitop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasUnit

Represents the unit of a numerical (real) value
has domain
Real c
has range
measurement unit c

hasAdmissibleUnitop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAdmissibleUnit

(x hasAdmissibleUnit y) means that y is a unit that can be associated with the variable x
has domain
Variable c
has range
measurement unit c
is inverse of
is admissible unit for op

hasAdmissibleValueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAdmissibleValue

(x hasAdmissibleValue y) means that y is a value that can be assigned to the variable x
has domain
Variable c
has range
Value c
is inverse of
is admissible value for op

immediately precedesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002090

X immediately precedes_Y iff: end(X) simultaneous_with start(Y)
has super-properties
precedes op
has domain
process c
has range
process c

implemented byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implementedByTool

Points to a tool that implements a given method
has super-properties
implemented by op
has domain
method c
has range
Tool c
is inverse of
implements op

implemented byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implementedBy

has sub-properties
implemented by op

implementsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implementsMethod

Points to a method that is implemented by a given tool
has super-properties
implements op
has domain
Tool c
has range
method c
is inverse of
implemented by op

implementsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implements

has sub-properties
implements op

in seriesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#inSeries

Normally, child datasets in dataset series are represented as dcat:Dataset. The use of dcat:Distribution for typing child datasets is however recognized as a possible alternative, whenever it addresses more effectively the requirements of a given application scenario.
A dataset series of which the dataset is part.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has super-properties
part of op
has domain
dataset c
has range
dataset series c

input ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002352

(x input of y) means x is a specific input of y to carry out further processes
has super-properties
participates in op
is inverse of
has input op

investigatesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates

(x investigates y) means that x is about y, in the context of scientific research and development
has sub-properties
investigates property op
has domain
processing step c

investigates propertyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigatesProperty

(x investigatesProperty y) means that x is about target property y, in the context of scientific research and development
has super-properties
investigates op
has range
Property c

is admissible unit forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAdmissibleUnitFor

(x isAdmissibleUnitFor y) means that x is a unit that can be associated with the variable y; subsumption under msHPIPIR is explained as follows: There is a sign z for the variable y (where z is a description of admissible values of y) of which x is constitutive (and with which x hence overlaps)
has domain
measurement unit c
has range
Variable c
is inverse of
hasAdmissibleUnit op

is admissible value forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAdmissibleValueFor

(x isAdmissibleValueFor y) means that x is a value that can be assigned to the variable y; subsumption under msIPIRIR is explained as follows: There is a sign z for the variable y (where z is the range of admissible values of y), for which in turn there is another sign z' (where z' lists members of z, explicitly including x) of which x is a part
has domain
Value c
has range
Variable c
is inverse of
hasAdmissibleValue op

is assignment forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAssignmentFor

(o isAssignment for d) means that d: x = y is an assignment that refers to o; e.g., x may be temperature, y may be a temperature value, and o may be an object of which the temperature has been measured or some other context to which the assignment refers
has domain
Assignment c

is property ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/isPropertyOf

Relation between a Property and the entity it belongs to.
is inverse of
has property op

is value in assignmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isValueInAssignment

(y isValueInAssignment a) means that a: x = y is an assignment where the value y is assigned to a variable x
has domain
Value c
has range
Assignment c

is variable in assignmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isVariableInAssignment

(x isVariableInAssignment a) means that a: x = y is an assignment where a value y is assigned to the variable x
has domain
Variable c
has range
Assignment c

media typeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#mediaType

The media type of the distribution as defined by IANA.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has domain
distribution c

memberop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/member

Indicates a member of a Group
has super-properties
has part op
has domain
Group c
has range
Agent c

output ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002353

(x output of y) means x is the specific output of y as the result or further processes
has super-properties
participates in op
is inverse of
has output op

packaging formatop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#packageFormat

The package format of the distribution in which one or more data files are grouped together, e.g. to enable a set of related files to be downloaded together.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has domain
distribution c

part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050

a core relation that holds between a part and its whole

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
in series op
is inverse of
has part op

participates inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000056

a relation between a continuant and a process, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process
has sub-properties
input of op, output of op
is inverse of
has participant op

personal mailboxop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox

A personal mailbox, ie. an Internet mailbox associated with exactly one owner, the first owner of this mailbox. This is a 'static inverse functional property', in that there is (across time and change) at most one individual that ever has any particular value for foaf:mbox.
Is defined by
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/

has characteristics: inverse functional

has domain
Agent c
has range
thing c

precedesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000063

x precedes y if and only if the time point at which x ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: x precedes y iff ω(x) <= α(y), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
immediately precedes op
has domain
process c
has range
process c

project participantop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#projectParticipant

A property that connects a project with a person or an organisation.
has domain
Project c
has range
Organization c or Person c
is inverse of
associated to project op

qualified associationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation

Allows to specify more information (e.g. a role) about an association between an agent (e.g. a person) and an Activity (e.g. a processing step).
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#
Example
Example application in m4i:
:SomeProcess
    a m4i:ProcessingStep; 
    obo:RO_0000057 :SomePerson;
    prov:qualifiedAssociation [
        a prov:Association;
        prov:agent   :SomePerson;
        prov:hadRole :SomeRole;
        rdfs:comment ":SomePerson had the :SomeRole in this :SomeProcess"@en
    ].

The direct relation between an activity and an agent expressed with 'has participant' (http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000057) does not give details about the agent's role in that activity. Using the property prov:qualifiedAssociation one can point to a blank node (cf. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blank_node&oldid=1015446558) containing additional information about the participation relation.
has domain
Activity c
has range
Association c

realized inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000054

Paraphrase of elucidation: a relation between a realizable entity and a process, where there is some material entity that is bearer of the realizable entity and participates in the process, and the realizable entity comes to be realized in the course of the process
Is defined by
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/
has domain
realizable entity c
has range
process c
is inverse of
realizes op

realizesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000055

Paraphrase of elucidation: a relation between a process and a realizable entity, where there is some material entity that is bearer of the realizable entity and participates in the process, and the realizable entity comes to be realized in the course of the process
Is defined by
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/
has sub-properties
realizes method op
has domain
process c
has range
realizable entity c
is inverse of
realized in op

realizes methodop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#realizesMethod

Points to a method that is used within a given processing step
has super-properties
realizes op
has domain
processing step c
has range
method c

starts withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002224

x starts with y if and only if x has part y and the time point at which x starts is equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: α(y) = α(x) ∧ ω(y) < ω(x), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
has part op
has domain
processing step c
has range
processing step c

uses instrumentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/instrument

points to an object that helped the agent perform the action (e.g., John wrote a book with a pen)
has super-properties
has participant op
has sub-properties
has employed tool op
has domain
Activity c

wasRoleInop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRoleIn

prov:wasRoleIn references the association (e.g. between an agent and an activity) in which a role shall be defined. Inverse property of prov:hadRole.
is inverse of
hadRole op

Data Properties

endTimedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/endTime

The endTime of something. For a reserved event or service (e.g. FoodEstablishmentReservation), the time that it is expected to end. For actions that span a period of time, when the action was performed. e.g. John wrote a book from January to <em>December</em>. For media, including audio and video, it's the time offset of the end of a clip within a larger file.<br/><br/> Note that Event uses startDate/endDate instead of startTime/endTime, even when describing dates with times. This situation may be clarified in future revisions.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/
has domain
processing step c
has range
DateTime

file size (in bytes)dp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#byteSize

The size of a distribution in bytes.
Is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
has domain
distribution c

firstNamedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName

The first name of a person.
has domain
Person c
has range
literal

has assignment timestampdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAssignmentTimestamp

Points to a timestamp associated with an assignment; there are multiple kinds of timestamp datatype properties, which are included here from schema.org

has coverage factordp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasCoverageFactor

points to the coverage factor, i.e., to a factor (greater than or equal to unity) by which the expanded uncertainty relates to the standard uncertainty
has domain
expanded uncertainty c
has range

has coverage probabilitydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasCoverageProbability

points to the probability (between 0 and 1) ascribed to the event of the actual value falling within the range asserted by the given uncertainty declaration
has domain
uncertainty declaration c
has range

has date assignment createddp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentCreated

Points to a date(time) of creation of an assignment
has super-properties
has assignment timestamp dp
has domain
Assignment c
has range
DateTime

has date assignment deleteddp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentDeleted

Points to a date(time) of deletion of an assignment
has super-properties
has assignment timestamp dp
has domain
Assignment c
has range
DateTime

has date assignment modifieddp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentModified

Points to a date(time) of modification of an assignment
has super-properties
has assignment timestamp dp
has domain
Assignment c
has range
DateTime

has date assignment valid fromdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentValidFrom

Points to a date(time) at which the validity of an assignment begins
has super-properties
has assignment timestamp dp
has domain
Assignment c
has range
DateTime

has date assignment valid untildp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentValidUntil

Points to a date(time) at which the validity of an assignment ends
has super-properties
has assignment timestamp dp
has domain
Assignment c
has range
DateTime

has distributiondp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasDistribution

points to a descriptor/label of the assumed underlying distribution
has domain
uncertainty declaration c
has range
string

has identifierdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#identifier

A systematically built alphanumeric string that identifies a unique object (e.g. a person, a publication, an organisation, a research activity, a sample, etc.) or a unique class of objects.
has sub-properties
ORCID Id dp, has ROR id dp, project ID dp

has interval maximumdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasIntervalMax

upper boundary of the coverage interval
has domain
coverage interval c
has range
decimal

has interval minimumdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasIntervalMin

lower boundary of the coverage interval
has domain
coverage interval c
has range
decimal

has numerical valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasNumericalValue

Represents the numerical value of a real
has domain
Real c

has ROR iddp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasRorId

A Research Organization Registry identifier, that points to a research organization
has super-properties
has identifier dp
has domain
Organization c
has range

has standard uncertaintydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasStandardUnc

The standard measurement uncertainty is the measurement uncertainty expressed as a standard deviation
has domain
coverage interval c
has range

has symboldp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasSymbol

Letter or string that denotes a variable
has domain
Variable c
has range
string

has timestampdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/temporal

The 'temporal' property can be used in cases where more specific properties (e.g., dateCreated, dateModified, datePublished) are not known to be appropriate
has sub-properties
has assignment timestamp dp
has range
DateTime

has uncertaintydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://ptb.de/si/hasUncertainty

absolute magnitude of the indicated uncertainty
has domain
expanded uncertainty c
has range

has variable descriptiondp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasVariableDescription

Textual and human readable description of a variable in a research context
has domain
Variable c
has range
string

lastNamedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/lastName

The last name of a person.
has domain
Person c
has range
literal

ORCID Iddp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#orcidId

has super-properties
has identifier dp
has domain
Person c
has range
string

project end datedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#endOfProject

end date of a project
has domain
Project c
has range
date

project IDdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#projectReferenceID

An alphanumeric identifier for a project.
has super-properties
has identifier dp
has domain
Project c
has range
string

project start datedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#startOfProject

start date of a project
has domain
Project c
has range
date

spatial resolution (in metres)dp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#spatialResolutionInMeters

Minimum spatial separation resolvable in a dataset, measured in metres.
has range
decimal

startTimedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://schema.org/startTime

The startTime of something. For a reserved event or service (e.g. FoodEstablishmentReservation), the time that it is expected to start. For actions that span a period of time, when the action was performed. e.g. John wrote a book from <em>January</em> to December. For media, including audio and video, it's the time offset of the start of a clip within a larger file.<br/><br/> Note that Event uses startDate/endDate instead of startTime/endTime, even when describing dates with times. This situation may be clarified in future revisions.
Is defined by
https://schema.org/
has domain
processing step c
has range
DateTime

temporal resolutiondp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#temporalResolution

Minimum time period resolvable in a dataset.
has range
duration

titledp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/title

Title (Mr, Mrs, Ms, Dr. etc)
has domain
Person c
has range
literal

usage instructiondp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#UsageInstruction

Textual description of a processing step within a research process to enable or facilitate its reproducibility
has domain
processing step c
has range
string

Named Individuals

contact personni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ContactPerson

Person with knowledge of how to access, troubleshoot, or otherwise field issues related to the resource
belongs to
Role c

data collectorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#DataCollector

Person/institution responsible for finding or gathering/collecting data under the guidelines of the author(s) or Principal Investigator (PI)
belongs to
Role c

data curatorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#DataCurator

Person tasked with reviewing, enhancing, cleaning, or standardizing metadata and the associated data submitted for storage, use, and maintenance within a data centre or repository
belongs to
Role c

data managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#DataManager

Person (or organisation with a staff of data managers, such as a data centre) responsible for maintaining the finished resource
belongs to
Role c

distributorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Distributor

Institution tasked with responsibility to generate/disseminate copies of the resource in either electronic or print form
belongs to
Role c

editorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Editor

A person who oversees the details related to the publication format of the resource
belongs to
Role c

hosting institutionni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#HostingInstitution

Typically, the organisation allowing the resource to be available on the internet through the provision of its hardware/software/operating support
belongs to
Role c

other personni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Other

Any person or institution making a significant contribution to the development and/or maintenance of the resource, but whose contribution is notadequately described by any of the other values for contributorType
belongs to
Role c

producerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Producer

Typically,a person or organisation responsible for the artistry and form of a media product
belongs to
Role c

project leaderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProjectLeader

Person officially designated as head of project team or sub-project team instrumental in the work necessary to development of the resource
belongs to
Role c

project managerni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProjectManager

Person officially designated as manager of a project. Project may consist of one or many project teams and sub-teams.
belongs to
Role c

project memberni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProjectMember

Person on the membership list of a designated project/project team
belongs to
Role c

registration agencyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#RegistrationAgency

Institution/organisation officially appointed by a Registration Authority to handle specific tasks within a defined area of responsibility
belongs to
Role c

registration authorityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#RegistrationAuthority

A standards-setting body from which Registration Agencies obtain official recognition and guidance
belongs to
Role c

related personni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#RelatedPerson

A person without a specifically defined role in the development of the resource, but who is someone the author wishes to recognize
belongs to
Role c

research groupni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ResearchGroup

Typically refers to a group of individuals with a lab, department, or divisionthathas a specifically defined focus of activity.
belongs to
Role c

researcherni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Researcher

A person involved in analysing data or the results of an experiment or formal study. May indicate an intern or assistant to one of the authors who helped with research but who was not so “key” as to be listed as an author.
belongs to
Role c

rights holderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#RightsHolder

Person or institution owning or managing property rights, including intellectual property rights over the resource
belongs to
Role c

sponsorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Sponsor

Person or organisation that issued a contract or under the auspices of which a work has been written, printed, published, developed, etc.
belongs to
Role c

supervisorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Supervisor

Designated administrator over one or more groups/teams working to produce a resource, or over one or more steps of a development process
belongs to
Role c

work package leaderni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#WorkPackageLeader

A Work Package is a recognized data product, not all of which is included in publication. The package, instead, may include notes, discarded documents, etc. The Work Package Leader is responsible for ensuring the comprehensive contents, versioning, and availability of the Work Package during the development of the resource.
belongs to
Role c

Legend back to ToC

c: Classes
op: Object Properties
dp: Data Properties
ni: Named Individuals

References back to ToC

Fuhrmans, Marc, Add your references here. It is recommended to have them as a list. Iglezakis, Dorothea. (2020). Metadata4Ing: Ansatz zur Modellierung interoperabler Metadaten für die Ingenieurwissenschaften. Interoperabilität von Metadaten innerhalb der NFDI - Konsortienübergreifender Metadaten-Workshop. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3982367 Hutzschenreuter, Daniel, et al. (2020). SmartCom Digital System of Units (D-SI): Guide for the use of the metadata-format used in metrology for the easy-to-use, safe, harmonised and unambiguous digital transfer of metrological data - Second Edition (D-SI 1.3.0-2). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3816686 Horsch, Martin Thomas. (2021). Mereosemiotics: Five scenarios (first revised version). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4846313 Schembera, Björn, Add your references here. It is recommended to have them as a list. Iglezakis, Dorothea. (2020). EngMeta - Metadata for Computational Engineering. International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies, 14, 26-38. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMSO.2020.107792 Reused Ontologies: * [Bibliographic Ontology](https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/bibo/) * [Bibliographic Reference Ontology](http://purl.org/spar/biro) * [Data Catalog](http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat) * [Dublin Core Terms](http://purl.org/dc/terms/) * [Friend of a Friend](http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/) * [Web Ontology Language](https://www.w3.org/TR/owl-overview/) * [Provenance Namespace](https://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-prov-o-20130430/) * [Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types](http://www.qudt.org/2.1/catalog/qudt-catalog.html) * [Resource Description Framework](https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/) * [RDF Schema](https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/) * [schema.org](https://schema.org/) * [Simple Knowledge Organization System](https://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/) * [Semantic Sensor Network Ontology](https://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-ssn/) * [Vocabulary for Annotating vocabulary descriptions](https://vocab.org/vann/) * [XML Schema Definition](https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-1/) * [European Materials and Modelling Ontology](http://emmo.info/emmo) * [Basic Formal Ontology](https://basic-formal-ontology.org/) * [Relation Ontology](https://obofoundry.org/ontology/ro.html) * [PIMS Interoperability Infrastructure](http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl) * [Digital System of Units](https://www.ptb.de/si/SI_Format.xsd)

Acknowledgments back to ToC

The authors would like to thank [Silvio Peroni](http://www.essepuntato.it/) for developing [LODE](http://www.essepuntato.it/lode), a Live OWL Documentation Environment, which is used for representing the Cross Referencing Section of this document and [Daniel Garijo](https://w3id.org/people/dgarijo) for developing [Widoco](https://github.com/dgarijo/Widoco), the program used to create the template used in this documentation. The authors would like to thank the Federal Government and the Heads of Government of the Länder, as well as the Joint Science Conference (GWK), for their funding and support within the framework of the [NFDI4Ing consortium](https://nfdi4ing.de). Funded by the [German Research Foundation](https://www.dfg.de/) (DFG) - project number [442146713](https://gepris.dfg.de/gepris/projekt/442146713).